Selelekela Nr. 1: VIETNAM Mehleng ea Boholo-holo - SELELEKELA

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HUNG NGUYEN MANH1
Ngaka ea Phylosophie ho Nalane

Tho tloha qalong ea lekholo la XX la lilemo, mahlale a indasteri le a mahlale a se a qalile ho nts'etsapele - haholoholo ho phatloha makaleng a setso le a bohahlauli ho lebisitse tlhokong ea phapanyetsano ea setso lipakeng tsa litso tse fapaneng ka likarete tsa poso.

In 1882, motho o qapile ho nka lifoto, 'me ka 1886 litaba tse hatisitsoeng li ne li hatisitsoe ka kotloloho pampiring ka mekhoa e mecha ea khatiso. Liposkarete tse neng li phela ka nako eo li ne li hlotse libaka tsohle tsa sebaka mme li fihlelletse litlhokahalo tsa sechaba le lefats'e. Ho bonahala eka libaka tsohle tse joalo li fokotsehile ka lebaka la litšoantšo tse hatisitsoeng ka likarete tsa poso.

OHa re re - ho ea qalong ea lekholo la XX, likarete tsa poso li ntse li hola joalo ka feberu, ho ba bangata Se-indochinese linaha ka kakaretso, le ho Vietnam ka ho khetheha.

To tsoha ka matsoho a DE THAM2 e kanna ea ba e 'ngoe ea lithuto tsa mantlha tse sebelisitsoeng pele qalong Vietnam. Hona joale re na le pokello ena ea likarete tsa poso sebakeng sa rona. Liemahale tse hahiloeng ke Mafora joalo ka: Ho sebelisoa hampe ha mashala ho Hong Gai3, feme ea samente ho Hai Phong4, tšepe marokho Doumer5 (Nako e telele) le Trang Tien (ka Hue)6, e Hai Phong 'me Saigon wharves, masimong a Lithaba tsa Bophirimela7, hammoho le liemahale tse ling tse ngata ho Annam8 'me Cochinchina9 (Vietnam Bohareng le Boroa), le ho Litereke tse ts'eletseng10 in Cochinchinajj. .. Haholo-holo litšoantšo tse ngolang le tse bonts'ang Tsela ea Mandarin11 (la tsela mandarine) kamehla e theha taba e ikhethang e hohelang baetsi ba lifoto.

Tlikarete tsa poso li siile likarolo tse fapaneng tsa setso joalo ka: litšoantšo tsa seterateng, mahaeng le metsaneng ho North, e Centre le South (Tonkin, Annam 'me Cochinchina), mekete, libaka tsa mmaraka le libaka tsa kaho ea litoropo metseng e meholo e kang Hanoi, Haiphong, Hue, Danang, Saigon… Hammoho le litšoantšo tsa marena a Leloko la borena la Nguyen12 tse kang: DUY TAN13, THANH THAI14, HAM NGHI15 eo hape e leng mohloli oa tšusumetso ho lifoto tse sebelisitseng likarolo tse joalo ho hlahisa likarete tsa litšoantšo tse rometsoeng lefats'eng ka bophara. Mabapi le taba ena, basomi ba rona ba boikhohomoso ba seng ba nahana hore litšoantšo tse joalo li sebelisetsoa ho fana ka tatso e makatsang, ha ba fana ka maikutlo mabapi le karolo ea lingoloa tsa Mafora ho Vietnam.

Tnalane ea likarete tsa poso o boetse o supa hore ke feela ho fihlela lilemong tsa pele tsa lekholo la XX moo likarete tsa pele li neng li nkuoa le ho hatisoa ke Vietnamesisch, li hlahile ka lekhetlo la pele ka Vietnam, 'me tse tloaelehileng ke sete sa likarete tsa 20 tse bonts'a lepato la PHAN CHAU TRINH16 in Saigon. Matsatsing ana liposkarete tsa khale li re thusa ho utloisisa le ho nahana nalane ea rona ka mokhoa o tiileng, haholo nalane ea sejoale-joale.

Aho latela Xua & Che Makasine ea ea Mokhatlo oa Bo-rahistori ba Vietnam17, ka lebaka la maemo a fapaneng a fapaneng, polokelo ea mefuta ea likarete tsa mofuta ona e kanna ea se sebetse haholo ebile e mengata joaloka ho France - empa, li ntse li ka fumanoa pokellong ea Sekolo sa Fora sa Bochabela bo Hare18 (Laeborari ea Setsebi sa Sechaba sa Vietnam le Setsi sa Boitsebiso), le ho Mokhatlo oa Central Archives19, joalo ka ha li ntse li ka fumanoa likopanong tsa babokelli ba ikemetseng.

Cmabapi le nyeoe ea ka - ea 'mokelli ea ikemetseng - lebitso la ka le boletsoe ke Makasine ea Xua & Nay ka ho kenya letsoho mona le mane liphatlalatsong tse ngata tsa likarete tsa poso ho tloha Hanoi, Hue, Saigon ho Liprofinse tse ka boroa joalo ka Ben Tre20, Kien Giang21...

The Xua & Che Makasine ea hape o boletse taba ea hore likete tsa likarete tsa pokello ea ka li bile le "setempe se shoeleng”Le mela ea lipolelo tse ngotsoeng ke ba romelang - ha ba qala ho kena Indochina kapa ba ne ba bile ba ntse ba lula ho Vietnam, Laos 'me Cambodia mme o ne a rometse likarete tse joalo ho litho tsa malapa a bona ka France, kapa kae kae linaheng tse ling tsa bokolone tsa Mafora.

Teena "setempe se shoeleng”'Me lipolelo tse joalo tse ngotsoeng li ekelitse boleng ba likarete tsa poso ka makhetlo a' maloa - tlasa pono e shebileng ea babokelli ba litsebi.

As bakeng sa ka, 'mokelli ea nkang monyetla - ea neng a ka bokella neng kapa neng kapa kae kapa kae moo likarete tsa poso tse joalo li ka fumanoang. Ke, nakong e telele ke lula ho Saigon. Ke khahloa ke setšoantšo sa naha ea habo e khanyang. Empa, hajoale, ke ntse ke lakatsa eka Xua & Che Makasine ea e tla tsoelapele ho nthusa ho tlisa kananelong e tloaelehileng ea sechaba joalo Mesebetsi ea matsoho ea Vietnam.

Tnakong eohle ea Millenium ea Thang Long22, mohloli oa litokomane tsa nalane, tse ngotsoeng le tse siiloeng pampiring li ne li le teng kaofela Chinese 'me nom (Litlhaku tsa boloi) mme e ntse e ka fumanoa lilaebraring tse ngata tsa babokelli ba poraefete. Hajoale, likarete tsa poso tse hatisitsoeng pampiring e thata ka ho nka linepe, ka mantsoe, lipolelo le tlhaiso-leseling ka morao, le tsona ke mohloli oa lisebelisoa tsa nalane - leha e ntse e le tsa morao-rao ebile li ncha - feela ka lekholo le le leng la lilemo - tlatselitse ho lithuto tsa nalane ea Vietnam karolo ea nalane ka litšoantšo.

TO nahana - kamoo e leng ka teng - o na le boleng ba 'nete ba nalane, ntle le ho hohla le ho lokisa, ntle le ho kopitsa, ntle le ho hlomathiseletsa le ho se manamise… Joalo feela Baetsi ba lifoto ba Bophirimela ho hlokomela le ho nka linepe tsa libaka tsa amerika boroa matsatsing a pele ha merabe e menyenyane e ntse e lula moo - Mona, litšoantšo tse nkuoeng li bonts'a bophelo ba merabe e mengata e fokolang e arolelanang bophelo ba eona le batho ba litoropo ba tsoang letsoapong Meru ea Indochinese ho Metse ea Vietnam joalo ka Hanoi, Saigon… metse eo pele e neng e bitsoa Perela ea Bochabela23 - mabitso a kileng a khanya haholo a tšoaeang phetoho e matla ekare ke ho baleha ho Nako ea Bohareng ho kena nakong ea nalane ea sejoale-joale.

Borokho ba Doumer - Hanoi - holylandvietnamstudies.com
Hanoi Capital - P. DOUMER Bridge - French Indochina (Mohloli: Vietnam mehleng ea khale, PhD. HUNG NGUYEN MANH, Xua & Nay Magazine, 2010)

BALA HORE:
Selelekela Nr. 2: HO TSEBISOA LITLHAKISO TSA MEKHOA EA INDOCHINESE.

lintlha:
1: Asso. Moprofesa HUNG NGUYEN MANH, Mopresidente oa mehleng oa Hong Bang University International, ke mongoli oa Vietnam, Hanoi, Saigon… Postcards, mothehi oa liwebosaete - khaledna, vietnamhoc.net, hollandlandetetstudies.com, lebogang.com, Joalo-joalo
2:… E ntlafatsa ...

lintlha:
Mohloli: Vietnam ka Nako ea Boholo-holo, NGUYEN MANH HUNG Ngaka ho Nalane, Makasine ea Xua & Nay, Bahoeletsi ba Thoi Dai, Hanoi, 2010.
Litemana tsohle, mongolo o tšekaletseng, mongolo o motenya, mebala le litšoantšo tse khabisitsoeng li behiloe ke Ban Tu Thu - khaledna.

BAN TU THU
09 / 2020

(Linako tse ling tsa 9 li etselitsoeng kajeno, maeto a 1 kajeno)
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